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Hydrocodone is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a narcotic analgesic related to codeine, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant. [PubChem]Hydrocodone acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Hydrocodone primarily affects OP3 receptors, which are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as modulators, both positive and negative, of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids such as hydrocodone also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription,narcotic analgesic related to codeine
Hydrocodone,sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy. It is a narcotic analgesic used orally for relief of moderate to severe pain, but also commonly taken in liquid form as an antitussive/cough suppressant.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription,narcotic analgesic related to codeine
Hydrocodone is an opioid, and acts as a selective agonist of the μ-opioid receptor, the main biological target of the endogenous neuropeptide β-endorphin.
Hydrocodone is prescribed predominantly within the United States, with the International Narcotics Control Board reporting that 99% of the worldwide supply in 2007 was consumed in the United States. Several common imprints for hydrocodone are M365, M366, M367.
Hydrocodone is used to treat moderate to severe pain, although it is often prescribed to treat mild pain as well. In liquid formulations, it is used as an antitussive to treat cough. In one study comparing the potency of hydrocodone to that of oxycodone, it was found that it took 50% more hydrocodone to achieve the same degree of miosis (pupillary contraction). The investigators interpreted this to mean that oxycodone is about 50% more potent than hydrocodone.
However, in a study of emergency department patients with fractures, it was found that an equal amount of either drug provided about the same degree of pain relief, indicating that there is little practical difference between them when used for that purpose. Some references state that the analgesic action of hydrocodone begins in 20–30 minutes and lasts about 4–8 hours. The manufacturer’s information says onset of action is about 10–30 minutes and duration is about 4–6 hours. Recommended dosing interval is 4–6 hours.
See also: Hydrocodone/paracetamol, Hydrocodone/ibuprofen, and Hydrocodone/aspirin
Hydrocodone is available in a variety of formulations for oral administration:Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription
Immediate-release hydrocodone with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (Vicodin, Lortab, Lorcet, Maxidone, Norco, Zydone)
Immediate-release hydrocodone with ibuprofen (Vicoprofen, Ibudone, Reprexain)
Immediate-release hydrocodone with aspirin (Alor 5/500, Azdone, Damason-P, Lortab ASA, Panasal 5/500)
Controlled-release hydrocodone (Hysingla ER, Zohydro ER)
Hydrocodone is not available in parenteral or any other non-oral forms.
Common side effects of hydrocodone are nausea, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness, dizziness, lightheadedness, anxiety, abnormally happy or sad mood, dry throat, difficulty urinating, rash, itching, and contraction of the pupils. Serious side effects include slowed or irregular breathing and chest tightness.
Several cases of progressive bilateral hearing loss unresponsive to steroid therapy have been described as an infrequent adverse reaction to hydrocodone/paracetamol misuse. This adverse effect has been considered by some to be due to the ototoxicity of hydrocodone. Other researchers have suggested that paracetamol is the primary agent responsible for the ototoxicity.
Hydrocodone is in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy category C. No adequate and well-controlled studies in humans have been conducted. A newborn of a mother taking opioid medications regularly prior to the birth will be physically dependent. The baby may also exhibit respiratory depression if the opioid dose was high. An epidemiological study indicated that opioid treatment during early pregnancy results in increased risk of various birth defects.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription,narcotic analgesic related to codeine
Symptoms of hydrocodone overdose include narrowed or widened pupils; slow, shallow, or stopped breathing; slowed or stopped heartbeat; cold, clammy, or blue skin; excessive sleepiness; loss of consciousness; seizures; or death.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription
Hydrocodone can be habit forming, causing physical and psychological dependence. Its abuse liability is similar to morphine and less than oxycodone.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription,narcotic analgesic related to codeineBuy Hydrocodone online without prescription
Hydrocodone is a semisynthetic hydrogenated codeine derivative and opioid agonist with analgesic and antitussive effects. Hydrocodone primarily binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor in the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression, miosis, decreased gastrointestinal motility, cough suppression and physical dependence. Hydrocodone is converted to hydromorphone by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6.Buy Hydrocodone online without prescription,narcotic analgesic related to codeine